Cooking Guidelines
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October Dinner Menu
The Why’s and How’s of Organ Meats

Grass-fed/Finished Beef
Cooking Guidelines & Recipes ~from Chef Bill Jones

Cooking Guidelines

1) Grass-fed beef is usually leaner than traditionally raised beef:

  • Use a lower cooking temperature than normal (300-325 F when roasting)
  • Ideally cook to medium rare for steak cuts
  • Use moist heating techniques like braises
  • Cook to a slightly lower temperature than normal and allow the meat to rest at least 5-10 minutes before carving

2) Here are the recommended temperatures for Grass-fed Beef. I would recommend cooking to 5 F less than traditional temperatures (shown in brackets). Meat will continue to cook about 5 degrees as it rests so I would also recommend you stop cooking at 5 F lower that the final desired temperature. A good instant meat thermometer will cost about $20 and is a great investment for the kitchen.

  • Rare 135 F (140) 57 C
  • Medium rare 140 F (145) 60 C
  • Medium 155 F (160) 68 C
  • Medium Well 160 F (165) 71 C
  • Well done 165 F (170) 74 C

3) Tenderizing is a good way to create a tender cut of meat. Marinating is a way to increase tenderness and add flavour to the beef. It will also make the meat cook quicker so you are advised to keep a good eye on the meat until you see how quickly it is cooking. Here is a good basic marinade for beef cuts:
Beef Marinade

  • 1 cup (250 mL) beer, wine or cider
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) mustard
  • 1 tsp (5 mL) Worcestershire sauce
  • 2 Tbsp (30 mL) olive oil
  • 1 tbsp (15 mL) garlic
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) fresh rosemary or thyme, chopped
  • 1 tsp (5 mL) sea salt
  • 1 tsp (5 mL) pepper

In a jar, combine all the ingredients and shake to mix. Pour over the beef and allow to sit for at least 1 hour and not more that 6 hours for best results.

Pasture Beef Recipes

Rich Beef Stock– Makes 5L

  • 4 lbs(2 kg) beef bones (shank is best)
  • Salt and pepper
  • 1 cup (250 mL) onion, peeled and chopped
  • 1 cup (250 mL) carrot, peeled and chopped
  • 1 cup ( 250 mL) celery, chopped
  • 4 Tbsp (60 mL) mixed fresh herbs (rosemary, sage, marjoram)
  • Cold water to cover bones

Rinse bones under cold water until they become clear. Place on a roasting tray and season with Salt and pepper. Place in a 350 F (180 C) oven and roast for 1 hour. Add he onion, carrot and celery to the bones. Continue roasting for another 30 minutes or until vegetables are nicely browned and bones are well roasted.Transfer to a stock pot, scrape any brown bits off the bottom of the pan. Can be deglazed (pour water, wine or beer into the pan to dissolve bits). Cover the bones with cold water and bring to a boil.

Immediately reduce to a simmer and discard any foam that floats to the surface at this point (will discolor stock and add bitter flavors if left).Gently simmer for 2 hours, skimming foam as necessary. Add the mixed herbs and simmer for an additional 2-4 hours. Remove from heat and allow to cool to warm. Strain through a wire mesh strainer or colander into a clean storage container (should yield 5 L of stock). Allow to cool on a rack to room temperature. Cover with a lid and cool over night. Next day, remove the cover of fat. Will keep for 1 week refrigerated, 2 months.

Sirloin skewers with Jamaican Jerk Seasoning– Serves 4

  • 1 lb (454 g) beef sirloin
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) olive oil
  • 1 tsp (5 mL) allspice, ground
  • 1 tsp (5 mL) thyme
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) garlic
  • 1 tsp (5 mL) hot sauce

Cut beef into thick strips. Place in a glass container and add the olive oil, allspice, thyme, garlic and hot sauce. Stir well to mix and allow to marinate for at least 1 hour.Place onto wooden (or metal) skewers.Place on a hot grill (a good tip for wooden skewers is to coat them in tinfoil to keep them from burning. Grill on a hot BBQ until cooked to the degree of doneness you like (medium rare is recommended).

Braised Beef Short Ribs
Serves 4This basic technique could be used with any stew cut of meat, add diced potatoes, carrots and celery to make a complete meal.

  • 1/4 cup (65 mL) flour
  • Salt and pepper to taste
  • 2 lbs (2 kg) beef short ribs
  • 2 Tbsp (30 mL) olive oil
  • 4 cups (1L) beef stock (or beer or wine)
  • 1 head garlic cut in half
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) fresh sage, chopped
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) tomato paste

In a small mixing bowl, combine the flour, salt and pepper. Stir to mix.Add the ribs, one at a time, and coat with the flour mixture. Transfer to a hot skillet with the olive oil. Repeat with the remaining ribs. Turn frequently until all sides are browned. Reduce heat if they start to brown too quickly or smoke.Transfer to a roasting pan.Add the beef stock, garlic, sage and tomato paste. Cover tightly with tinfoil and place in the hot 350 F (180 C) oven for 2 hours. Remove from oven and allow to cool for 1 hour. Place in a storage container and refrigerate over night. Next day, remove fat from the surface of the stock.To serve, add ribs and bones to a large skillet. Bring to a boil, simmer and turn meat occasionally while the stock reduces. Check the seasoning and adjust with salt and pepper if necessary.Serve warm, with a little sauce spooned over the meat. Great over mashed potatoes or rice dishes.

Beef and Mushroom Meat LoafThis recipe can also me made into meat balls for spaghetti or braised dishes.

  • 1 cup carrots, coarsely chopped
  • 1 stalk celery, coarsely chopped
  • 1 onion peeled and coarsely chopped
  • 2 cups mushrooms, halved
  • 1 cup fresh bread, roughly torn
  • 2 lbs ground beef
  • 1 Tbsp fresh garlic, chopped
  • 1 Tbsp rosemary, chopped
  • 1 egg
  • 1 Tbsp Worcestershire sauce (optional or soy)
  • 1 tsp black pepper
  • 1 tsp sea salt

In a food processor, combine the carrots, celery, onion, mushrooms and bread. Pulse until a course puree is obtained. In a mixing bowl, add the beef and the vegetable mixture. Add the garlic, rosemary, egg, Worcestershire sauce, pepper and salt.Take a small piece and fry in a pan until cooked through. Taste and adjust seasoning if required. Place beef mixture into a loaf pan. Place in a 350 F (180 C) oven and bake for 1 hour or until the mixture reaches a temperature of 160 F.Serve warm with gravy or mushroom sauce. Can be frozen for up to 1 month.

October Dinner Menu

Baked mushrooms with beef and porcini-makes 12
Bechamel Sauce


  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) butter
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) flour
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) porcini powder
  • 1 cup (250 mL) milk
  • ½ cup (125 mL) grated cheese (cheddar, mozzarella, etc)
  • Salt and pepper to taste
  • 1 tsp (5 mL) butter or grapeseed oil
  • 1/2 lb (225 g) ground beef
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) garlic
  • 12 large mushroom caps

In a saucepan over medium-high heat, add the butter. Heat until sizzling, add the flour and whisk until smooth, add the porcini powder and stir to mix. Add the milk and whisk until smooth. Cook for 10 minutes over low heat until smooth and thick. Season well with salt and pepper. Set aside to cool to room temperature.
In a sauté pan, add the butter and heat until sizzling. Add the beef and garlic amd sauté until browned. Season well with salt and pepper. Set aside in a sieve to drain and remove all fat. Remove the caps from the mushroom and reserve for another use. Fill each   mushroom cap with the beef and top with the sauce. Place in a hot 350 F (185 C) oven and bake until the tops bubble and brown. Serve hot with fresh French bread.

Beef and mushroom sausage with Asian flavourings-makes about 12 sausages

  • 2 lbs (1 kg) ground beef
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) sea salt
  • 1/2 cup (125 mL) water
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) hot sauce
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) garlic
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) ginger
  • 2 Tbsp (30 mL) cilantro
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) soy sauce
  • Sausage casing

Chill meat until very cold (place in freezer for 15 minutes). In a bowl, mix the water, salt and seasoning. Stir well to mix and dissolve salt. Add the meat and work in the seasoning(make sure your hands are clean). Knead until all the liquid is absorbed and the meat texture looks consistent an begins to get sticky. This is important to develop the correct texture of a well-made sausage. Test the seasoning by placing a spoonful in a frying pan and cooking completely. Adjust seasonings to taste.Cover with plastic wrap and chill for at least 30 minutes.

Stuffing the sausage into synthetic or hog casing. Use a sausage stuffer (or mixer
attachment). If cranking by hand, use a slow and steady rotation until you get a handle on the speed of the stuffer. If using a grinder with sausage stuffer attachment you will need two people. One to stuff the meat, and the other to guide the sausage. Place the casing over the end of the stuffer tube.

Watch as the sausage meat exits the end of the stuffer tube, fill the sausage casing until it is full (watch for air bubbles). You will feel with your fingers when the sausage is firm, not too loose or not too tight. A loose filling will make for an unattractive sausage, you can fix this by squeezing the filling into a firm mass when you make the 6 inch links of sausage. Too much filling will cause the casing to burst, if this happens you will have to stop and return the filling to the hopper (avoid doing this too often).

Good technique will have the sausage meat filling the casing and the process should go fairly quickly and smoothly. Coil the sausage into a clean pan or tray while making one large continuous link. Make individual sausages by twisting the sausage in 6 inch intervals. For best results, cut the sausage into links and freeze on a tray. When frozen, remove from tray and wrap in butcher (waxed paper). Write on the sausage type and date of processing. Use within 2-3 months for best results.

Chinese-flavoured beef, pine mushroom and heirloom tomato soup-serves 6-8

  • 4 cups (1L) tomato, vegetable or chicken stock (or water)
  • 5 lbs (2.5 kg) heirloom tomatoes, stemmed and chopped
  • 1 onion, peeled and diced
  • 1 cup (250 mL) celery, diced
  • 2 Tbsp (30 mL) ginger, minced
  • 2 Tbsp (30 mL) garlic, minced
  • 2 Tbsp (30 mL) hoisin sauce
  • 1 tsp (5 mL) 5 spice powder
  • 2 Tbsp (30 mL) honey
  • 1 tbsp (15 mL) sesame oil
  • Salt and pepper to taste
  • 1 lb (454 g) ground beef
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) grated fresh ginger
  • 2 Tbsp (30 mL) cornstarch (mixed with 1 Tbsp cold water)
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) grapeseed oil
  • 1 cup (250 mL) sliced mushrooms (pine, chanterelle, etc)
  • 2 Tbsp (30 mL) cilantro, minced
  • Chopped tomatoes for garnish (optional)

In a stock pot, add the stock, tomatoes, onion, celery, ginger and garlic, hoisin, 5 spice powder, honey and sesame oil. Bring to a boil, reduce to a simmer, cook for 1 hour. Puree soup with a hand blender (or in a blender or food processor) until smooth. Strain into a clean pot, pressing solids to extract all the liquid. Can be made ahead and stored for up to 2 days.

In a small bowl, combine the ground beef, ginger and corn starch. Work with hands until a smooth paste is formed. Heat the grapeseed oil in a non-stick skillet. When hot, add the beef and toss frequently, chopping up lumps until the mixture is even. Cook until the mixture sticks and begins to brown. Add a ladle of the soup mixture, scraping pan to get all the brown bits stuck to the bottom. Pour into the soup mixture. Finely mince the mushroom and add to the soup mixture.

Bring soup to a simmer and stir until the mixture thickens, about 3-4 minutes (if you like a thicker soup you can add more cornstarch mixed with cold water). Adjust seasoning with salt and pepper. Pour into a serving bowl and garnish with the chopped tomatoes and fresh cilantro.

Salad of wild mushrooms, roasted fennel and dried beef with fall greens-serves 4

  • 2 fennel bulbs
  • salt
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) olive oil
  • 1 cup (250 mL) mushrooms
  • 1 tsp (5 mL) chili pepper
  • 1/4 lb (100 g) thinly sliced dried beef (bresola)
  • 4 cups (1L) salad greens
  • 1 tsp (5 mL) olive oil
  • 1 tsp (5 mL) balsamic vinegars

Cut fronds and leaves off fennel, reserving leaves. Place fennel on a baking sheet and drizzle with olive oil and salt. Roast for 20 minutes or until a knife is easily inserted in the bulb. Add the mushrooms and chili to the pan and toss to coat in the oil and salt on the tray. Return to the oven and roast for an additional 10 minutes. Remove from heat and allow to cool slightly.

Cut the fennel into thin slices. Add to a small bowl with the roasted mushrooms. Season with salt and pepper. Drizzle with a little additional olive oil. Place the fennel and mushroom mix on a serving. Drape the sliced beef on top of the mixture.
In a salad bowl, add the greens and season with olive oil, balsamic and salt and pepper. Place greens on the plate next to the beef salad and serve immediately.

Short-rib ravioli with wild mushrooms-serves 4

  • 1/4 cup (65 mL) flour
  • Salt and pepper to taste
  • 2 lbs (2 kg) beef short ribs
  • 2 Tbsp (30 mL) olive oil
  • 4 cups (1L) beef stock (or beer or wine)
  • 1 head garlic cut in half
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) fresh sage, chopped
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) tomato paste
  • 4 cups (1L) wild or cultivated mushrooms, chopped

In a small mixing bowl, combine the flour, salt and pepper. Stir to mix.
Add the ribs, one at a time, and coat with the flour mixture. Transfer to a hot skillet with
the olive oil. Repeat with the remaining ribs. Turn frequently until all sides are browned. Reduce heat if they start to brown too quickly or smoke.

Transfer to a roasting pan. Add the beef stock, garlic, sage and tomato paste. Cover tightly with tinfoil and place in the hot 350 F (180 C) oven for 2 hours. Remove from oven and allow to cool for 1 hour. Place in a storage container and refrigerate over night. Next day, remove fat from the surface of the stock.

To serve, remove bones, chop meat and add to stock pot along with the mushrooms and any cooking liquid. Bring to a boil, simmer and turn meat occasionally while the stock reduces(about 30 minutes). Check the seasoning and adjust with salt and pepper if necessary. Serve warm, with a little sauce spooned over the meat. Great over mashed
potatoes or rice dishes.

Pasta-serves 4

  • 1 cup flour
  • 1/2 tsp salt
  • 1 egg, beaten
  • 2 Tbsp water

In a food processor, add the flour and salt. Pulse to mix. Add the eggs and pulse to mix. Add the water 1 Tbsp at a time until the dough comes together in a ball. Remove from processor bowl, wrap in plastic wrap and refrigerate for at least 1 hour.

Cut the dough into two pieces and run the dough through a pasta roller to make a long thin sheet. Lay on a table and repeat with the remaining pasta.

Cut into 6 inch segments and either cut with a knife (or pizza cutter) or run through the pasta cutter attachment on the pasta roller to make linguini or spaghetti.

Cook in boiling salted water for 3-4 minutes, drain and serve with butter and fresh grated parmesan cheese.

To serve, place a sheet of pasta on a plat e or bowl. Top with the braised meat mixture and top with a second sheet of pasta. Drizzle with a little olive oil, parmesan cheese and a grind of fresh pepper.

Warm apple cake with caramel, rosemary and rum; served with vanilla bean ice cream-serves 6-8This recipe requires 4 cups of chopped apple, half for the caramelized topping and half folded into the batter.
Preheat oven to 375 F (180 C)
13”x9” baking panTopping:

  • 1/4 cup (65 mL) butter, melted
  • 1/2 cup (125 mL) brown sugar
  • 2 cups (500 mL) apples, peeled and cored
  • 1 Tbsp (15 mL) fresh rosemary, minced (optional)


  • 1/2 cup (125 mL) butter (or olive oil)
  • 1 cup (250 mL) brown sugar
  • 3 eggs
  • 1 cup (250 mL) milk or cream
  • 1 tsp (5 mL) almond or vanilla extract
  • 2 1/2 cups (625 ml) flour
  • 2 tsp (10 mL) baking powder
  • 2 cups (500 mL) apples, cored peeled and chopped

Line a baking pan with silicone paper. In a small bowl, combine the melted butter, brown sugar, apples and rosemary (if used). Toss to coat and spread over the bottom of the baking pan.

In a mixer bowl, add the butter and sugar and blend until smooth. Add the eggs one at a time until incorporated. Add the milk and almond extract and blend until smooth. Add the flour and baking powder together and add in two or three stages to the batter. Mix in
between additions until the batter is just blended together, try not to over work the batter.

Add the chopped apples and fold gently to mix. Pour the batter into and smooth the surface. Place in the hot oven and bake for 45-60 minutes, until a toothpick inserted in the center comes out clean of batter.
Transfer to a cooling rack. To serve, invert cake onto a cutting board and tap the bottom to free the cake. Remove the silicon paper and cut into portions. Serve warm or at room temperature with ice cream.

The Why’s and How’s of Organ Meats

~Prepared by Jeanne Keith-Ferris, RN, BSc, Formally Founder and President of GPDA:

Now I am no offal aficionado, but I have bravely ventured into incorporating, at least once a week, organ meats into our family’s diet. What has drawn me to organ meats has been a desire to improve our health.

Organ meats are packed full of fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, K2, as well as vital minerals like zinc and vitamin B12. Our bodies need an abundance of good fats and fat-soluble vitamins for the healthy functioning of our nerves, joints and immune system.

Over five years ago, when ill health began to get a grip on my body, I started exploring food as a means to claim back my health. I became fascinated by one particular researcher/explorer – Dr. Weston Price.

Over eighty years ago Dr. Weston Price travelled to remote regions of the world looking for people eating indigenous foods and the impact of their diets on teeth, jaw structure, and overall health. What he found—uniformly—was people in remote, primitive areas ate 10 times more fat-soluble vitamins (for more information see then people living in “developed” counties. Why? Because, no matter what corner of the planet Dr. Price traveled to, all remote people prized organ meats and often had developed rituals around the preparation and consumption of these food items.

For the best quality organ meats, nothing beats grass-fed / finished beef! Grass fed / finished animals will have an abundance of “good” fats, which help to prevent cancers and calm the immune system as well as higher amounts of carotenoid (the needed component for the body’s production of vitamin A).

Finding a source for good tasting and good quality organ meats is a challenge! I felt blessed when I discovered Windhorse Farm Organic meats! I have a couple of recipes and tips to share with everyone and encourage you all to try out Windhorse Farm organic organ meats; you will be amazed at how easy they are to prepare and how great they taste!


  • For preparation of organ meats, one time honored cookbook: Joy of Cooking, by Irma S. Rombauer and Marion Rombauer Becker covers every aspect. Also available for purchase from the Weston Price Foundation is a cookbook: Nourishing Traditions, by Nancy Fallon with excellent organ meat recipes.
  • Most any organ meat can be “slipped” into any stew, soup or casserole dish without others knowing! Just prep as needed, lightly steam, sauté or grill; cut into small cubes and incorporated into a main meal.

Oxtail Soup and Beef Tongue (Jeanne Keith-Ferris)

Place frozen beef tongue out on counter several hours ahead and let thaw.
Commence making your oxtail soup – use any recipe you are familiar with, or, here is mine:
Take package of oxtails, can still be frozen, place into a soup/stock pot and just cover with cold water. Add your spices, adjust amounts to suit your taste – here is what we used (spices available from Planet organic or most any whole foods/organic store):

  • 3 bay leaves
  • 1 T. whole rose buds
  • 1 T. lavender flowers (if you have any wild foraged and dried lavender, this will do well)
  • 1 t. whole allspice
  • 2 t. juniper berries
  • 3 whole black cardamom pods (from East Indian spice stores)
  • ½ t. tarragon leaf crumbled
  • 1 t. organic thyme (can use fresh)
  • pinch of organic sage leaf – or chopped-up fresh sage leaf about 2 stems
  • one whole anise star
  • fresh ground pepper (I do not cook with any added salt – but I often use seaweed (see below) which does add salt to our dishes or soy sauce).

If the oxtails are still frozen, then place under very gentle heat until thawed, gradually turn-up the heat to a simmer and simmer for 1 to 2 hours to extract a rich stock from the oxtails.

Next, prepare your vegetables, use whatever root vegetables which you enjoy in a soup stock, or here is what we used:

  • Chopped-up carrots
  • One whole onion sliced
  • One whole garlic bulb, separate cloves and skin the cloves and toss in whole
  • 2 to 3 leaves of kale, with stems removed
  • Barkley Sound Micro kelp or bull kelp (sea weed is a wonderful item to cook with – provides essential minerals and does not impart a “sea or fishy” flavor). Use 5 strips and cut with scissors.
  • Sweet potatoes cubed
  • Check what else you have in the fridge in the way of old vegetables and toss them in too!

Once you have all your vegies in the pot, now prepare the tongue by scrubbing it under running water. Add the whole tongue to the pot (be sure there is still ample water in your pot). Cook the vegies and tongue for about one hour ‘till all are fork tender’.

Next take the tongue out of the stock and run it under cold water, or immerse in a bowl of cold water (just cool enough on the surface so you can handle the tongue)

Now you need to “skin” the tongue. Be brave! You really cannot make a mistake. Skinning just reveals the tender meat underneath the outer sheath. Use a sharp knife and just cut through the upper surface to split open and free the outer covering. The tongue will still be warm—even hot at the core—so be careful not to burn your fingers. Once you have scored across the length of the tongue from top to bottom and followed that around the back, then cut the base of the tongue to make “peeling” easier. Peel back the tongue covering by pulling and stripping at the membrane. Any place that it “hangs-up” peel it like you would pare an apple or potato skin. Finally trim off any areas that still hold fast to the membrane. Next slice length-wise into the meaty flesh of the tongue. Finally, cube this into bite size pieces and toss it back into the pot.

A final step is you can thicken your soup if you like. We are a gluten free family, so I use Kuzu root starch for my thickening agent. It adds very little flavor and works well. If you are okay with eating flour, then you could start out by flouring your oxtails, brown then in your Dutch oven pan and then begin here building your soup.

Your meal is ready! Ladle into soup bowls, garnish with fresh parsley and splash with soy sauce. You can also take a pinch of hot chili seeds and spread them about for a little flair!

Beef Heart (Jeanne Keith-Ferris)

Beef heart is so easy to cook and tastes like the finest cut steak you have ever eaten in your life! I am so amazed that I did not discover heart sooner! It is best cooked on the grill and cooked “blue,” rare or just rare for the squeamish ones.

You can marinate the beef heart in just about any marinate and grill it kabob style or grill it in long strips – what ever suits you.

I make our own marinates so as to completely control ingredients. We are a flour free, sugar free family—the pay-back in terms of our health has been enormous! For more information on diet and health watch this excellent TedTalk with physician, Dr. Terry Wahls

For marinating the heart, the best recipe is a Peruvian specialty called: Anticuchos. The dish was a popular one served by the Incas who used the llama heart for their dish.

Prepare the heart:

Take the thawed, whole heart and begin trimming away the slivery lining on the exterior surface of the heart. Also trim out the large coronary blood vessels. Remove any excess fat on the surface of the heart.

Next, cut the heart length-wise into quarters exposing the chambers (atria and ventricles). With a sharp knife, dissect out the tough ligaments, which comprise these chamber valves.

Now, decide if you are going to use your heart for skewers or will barbecue it in strips and cut the meat accordingly.

Next prepare your marinate – this is our version:

Using a mortar / pestle place in:

      • 6 to 12 cloves of garlic (we used 10)
      • ½ T. of whole cumin seed
      • 1 t. mild chili paste (aji panca) – I used about ¼ to ½ t. of hot chili pepper seeds. Adjust to your preference
      • About ½ to 1 t. of “mythic mole” (this is a spice rub available at most health food stores; see: It is very much worth your while to hunt down this spice – it makes for magical South American tasting meals!
      • Mash all of this and you may need to add a small amount of water to create a paste

Into the dish that you will marinate your meat, add this paste along with:

      • ½ cup or more of red wine vinegar.
      • Whisk all these ingredients together with some freshly ground pepper
      • Mix the heart with the marinate, and marinate for a minimum of 6 hours or overnight.

Fire-up the barbecue. Brush the grills with some oil (we use coconut oil). Grill your meat – don’t over cook – try to keep medium rare to rare. Use your marinate for basting. Serve with some sautéed vegies, or nice green salad. Enjoy!